Digital Marketing Jargon Explained - Part II
Previous post: Part I of the Digital Marketing Terms
Part II: M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Marketing Partnership: A smart collaboration of two or more organizations with the intent to develop a mid-term or long-term marketing program designed to meet each of their respective business goals.
Media: Modern media comes in many different formats, including print media (books, magazines, newspapers), television, movies, video games, music, cell phones, various kinds of software, and the Internet. Each type of media involves both content, and also a device or object through which that content is delivered.
Media Relations: Media relations refer to the relationship that a company or organization develops with journalists, while public relations extend that relationship beyond the media to the general public.
Meme: Any information on the web that people share for their own amusement. Meme’s can be images or videos or text. Typically a meme comes in the form of an image with supportive text. Good memes are guaranteed to gather large amounts of clicks.
Meta Data: Data that describes other data.
Meta-Description Tag: A tag on a Web page located in the heading source code containing a basic description of the page. It helps search engines categorize the page and can potentially inform users who come across the page listing in search results.
Meta-Keywords Tag: In the past, this tag allowed page authors to insert a massive list of keywords related (and occasionally unrelated) to a page in order to game search-engine results. Today, this tag’s potential to influence rankings has diminished to the point where it is widely disregarded by major search engines.
Meta-Search Engine: A search engine that does not compile its own independent results, but rather pulls data from two or more search engines.
Meta-Tags: Also called meta-data, this information found in HTML page headers used to be the bread and butter of SEO marketing tactics. Still used today despite widely perceived diminishing relevance to search-engine rankings, the most common are the “title,” “description,” and “keyword” tags (see below).
Microblog : A microblog is a social media utility where users can share short status updates and information. The most famous example is Twitter, which combines aspects of blogs (personalized Web posting) with aspects of social networking sites (making and tracking connections, or “friends”).
Microsoft adCenter: The pay-per-click (PPC) search-engine advertising program provided by Microsoft in conjunction with its Bing search engine, now also populating Yahoo! search results.
Mirror Site:Duplicate copy of a website already in existence, used to increase response time for high-volume sites.
Natural Listings (aka Organic Listings, Organic Search Listing): These are search-engine results that have not been purchased. They are calculated solely by an engine’s algorithm and are based on the merits of the listed pages. Typically, most search engines will display several sponsored ads related to search terms (often separated by background color or otherwise highlighted) before displaying the non-paid listings.
Network (or Social Network): A dedicated website or other application that enables users to communicate with each other by posting information, comments, messages, images, etc.
News Feed: The hub of everyone’s posts. For Facebook, the news feed is made up of friend’s posts. On Twitter, it is known as Timeline as is made up of tweets of those you follow. The news feed is constantly refreshed with the latest posts.
Ning: A hosting service with a set of community-building tools that allows anyone to create a social network. It was launched in October 2005.
Nofollow: Nofollow is an append which is coded into the HTML markup of a hyperlink. It is used to prevent a search engine from indexing a link to a particular Web page. Some strategic uses of external “nofollow” are associated with link popularity management, e.g., for site owners that do not want to give full “follow” credit to links posted by users in their forums or blog comments.
Open source: Denoting software for which the original source code is made freely available and may be redistributed and modified.
Open source software: Computer software with a special license that allows users in the general public to edit and improve the source code. Famously exemplified in the Firefox Web browser and Wikipedia encyclopedia, it is an example of the kind of collaboration that is encouraged under the Web 2.0 ethos. Contrast with closed, propriety software that does not share its codebase beyond an exclusive group of authorized developers.
Organic search listings: These are the results of a web search that have not been paid for. The positions of the results should be organic in that they reflect the popularity/trustworthiness of the website without being influenced by paid advertising. See Natural Listings.
Op-in email: Opt-in email is a term used when someone is given the option to receive email. Typically, this is some sort of mailing list, newsletter, or advertising. Without obtaining permission before sending email, the email is unsolicited bulk email, better known as spam.
Outbound Link: Any link on a Web page to an external Web page.
Owned media: It is defined as communication channels that are within one's control, such as websites, blogs, or email; while paid media refers mostly to traditional advertising. See also Earned Media and Paid Media.
Page View (PV): A page view or page impression is a request to load a single HTML file (web page) of an Internet site e.g. an instance of an Internet user visiting a particular page on a website.
PageRank (PR): A former proprietary method of Google (now disavowed) for measuring the popularity of a Web page. Much-debated in the SEO community, the measurement is believed to be influenced chiefly by the number and quality of inbound and outbound links associated with a given page. Updated infrequently, this rank was indicated as a number between 1 and 10 most commonly displayed in a green bar chart in the Google toolbar add-on for browsers. The SEO community consensus opinion is that the measurement was nothing more than Google’s incomplete assessment of the relative strength of a website.
Paid Listings (aka Paid Placement): Listings sold to advertisers for a fee. See also pay-per-click.
Paid Media: Paid media is a good way to promote content in order to drive earned media, as well as direct traffic to owned media properties. Paying to promote content can help get the ball rolling and create more exposure. Social Media sites like Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn offer advertising that could potentially help boost your content as well as your website. Another way to gain more exposure for your content is to pay influencers to tweet or share your links, impacting the reach and recognition your pieces receive. Using retargeting, Pay Per Click and display ads is an effective and more direct way to drive searchers to your owned media sites like your website, to help increase traffic and/or conversions.
Pay-For-Performance: A paid-search system nearly identical to (and essentially synonymous with) pay-per-click.
Pay-per-click (PPC) aka cost per click (CPC): PPC is an internet advertising model used to direct traffic to websites, in which an advertiser pays a publisher (typically a website owner or a network of websites) when the ad is clicked. This type of paid search marketing involves placing advertisements that run above or besides (and occasionally below) the free search-engine listings on Google, Bing, and Yahoo!. Typically, to get the highest position among these ads, website owners place a per-click bid. It’s not uncommon to participate in a bidding war for coveted top spots. For example, if a website’s listing is among the top 3 advertisements on a page, the same ad appears in the same location on partner websites. Some marketing firms, including Fathom, provide bid management services to get the most value for each search term.
Peer-to-peer (P2P): Refers to any type of interaction between two or more people within a specific social network. Most viral media by definition get their popularity via such P2P sharing. The term is also widely associated with (often illicit) file-sharing networks for music and movies, though not exclusive to that realm.
Pins: Images that are chosen from websites or within the Pinterest community. These images are then placed onto image boards.
Pinterest: A social network for people to create image boards.
Platform: Framework that runs software and presents content.
Podcast: A series of audio or video content which can be downloaded and listened to/viewed offline (or a particular episode in that series, e.g. podcast #6 of The Sporkful). A podcast is essentially an asynchronous Internet version of a “broadcast,” but to a very specific audience of willing subscribers. Podcasts are sometimes created to provide stand-alone copies of existing radio or television programming (such as daily/weekly shows), but they may also consist of entirely unique content intended for devoted Web-based subscribers.
Pop-Up Ad: A form of advertisement which automatically opens (or “pops up” in) a new window in a browser to display an ad. Also seen in the form of “pop-under” ads, a slightly less intrusive version. These interruptive approaches to advertising are generally disliked (and therefore ignored) by Internet users. Many browser-based and stand-alone software programs exist to block these ads.Position – Same as “rank” in reference to search-engine listings.
Profile: A profile is a personal page within a social network created by a user for sharing with others on the network. The profile provides basic biographical information and often links to the profiles of the user’s friends/connections.
Quality Score: Quality Score is a variable used by Google, Yahoo! (called Quality Index), and Bing that can influence both the rank and cost per click (CPC) of ads. To determine the order in which ads are listed, each ad has the following formula run against it: bid xQuality Score.
Query: The keyword(s) or term(s) entered into a search engine by the user.
Ranking(s): The position of a website’s listing(s) in search-engine results pages. The higher a rank for a specific keyword, the more generally visible a page is to search-engine users.
Rapid Inclusion: The indexing of websites in search engines and directories based on a per-page fee. As opposed to free submissions, where indexes are updated every few weeks (or less frequently), rapid indexing occurs every 48-72 hours.
Really simple syndication (RSS): RSS is the process by which content such as blog posts or podcasts can be updated regularly and syndicated to subscribers in feeds. RSS feeds enable users to access content updates from various outlets—e.g. their favorite blogs, news sites, and digital audio/video providers—all in one central location.
Reciprocal Link: A link to a website that is reciprocated in the form of a backlink, often prearranged by sites with mutually benefiting audiences. If abused, e.g., two sites with no topical relation decide to link to each other (and many other sites) exclusively for the sake of linking, penalties from search engines could result. See “link farm.”
Reddit: A social news site that is made up of users who share and leave comments on stories.
Redirect: See “301 redirect.”
Registration: The process of signing up to participate in an online forum, community or social-media network. At minimum, this act usually involves sharing a name and email address in order to set up a username and password.
Rel: Part of the code for a link may include a ‘rel’ signifier, which is short for relation. It tells a WebCrawler something about the link, and is used to fine tune certain aspects of SEO.
Repins: The action a Pinterest user takes when pinning an image from someone’s board onto one of their own.
Results Page: See “SERP.”
Retweet: An action on tweets for users to share that tweet with their following. The action resends the message with the original users name tag.
Roadmap: See Email Marketing Roadmap.
Robot (aka Bot): See crawler.
Robots.txt: A small text file included on a website that directs a search engine to include/exclude specific pages from its index. It can be submitted manually to search engines to ensure the latest version is followed regardless of the “crawl cycle.”
ROI: An acronym for “return-on-investment.” ROI is the percentage of profit from a given digital marketing activity. For example, if you pay $50 a month for CPC advertising, and it leads to $500 in profit, your ROI would be 1000%.
RSS Feed: Users subscribe to news feeds to get all the latest information in one place (RSS Reader).
RSS Reader: Taking all the information from subscribed news sites and blogs, the reader puts all this information in one easy-to-digest place. It is displayed in a format that is constantly refreshed to get up-to-date information.
Search Engine: A website that allows users to search the Web for specific information by entering keywords. Can include paid or organic listings of websites and sometimes specific images, products, videos, music, place entries or other enhanced results.
Search-Engine Marketing (SEM): A phrase sometimes used in contrast with “SEO” to describe paid search activities, SEM may also more generally refer to the broad range of search-marketing activities, either paid or organic.
Search Engine Optimization (SEO): SEO is strategies, techniques and tactics to increase the number of visitors to a website by obtaining a high-ranking placement in search results.
Search-Engine Referral: This statistic represents a visitor who arrives at a website after clicking through a search-engine results listing.
Search engine results page (SERP): SERP is the page displayed by a search engine in response to a query by a searcher. The main component of the SERP is the listing of results that are returned by the search engine in response to a keyword query.
Search Term: The precise word or phrase(s) entered into a search engine by a user (also called a “query”).
Sharing: One feature of social networking sites is that users can share links. If your website has an awesome page, a user may want to share it with all their friends. Most social networking sites have features that make this process very easy.
Shopping Search: A specialized type of search or dedicated search engine that indexes groups of products, prices and reviews for side-by-side comparison, especially helpful for shopping online.
Skype: A video chat program that is free to use. You can also use it for texting and leaving video and voice messages to other users.
SlideShare: A popular presentation- and document-sharing social network, especially useful for B2B marketing.
Snapchat:Snapchat is a photo-sharing service with one key distinguishing feature: the photos you send disappear. Seconds after opening "snaps," users can no longer access them and the images are deleted from the company's servers. Snapchat is an ephemera generating and sharing machine. Snapchat offers a mix of private messaging and public content, including brand networks, publications, and live events such as sports and music.
Social Media: Refers to all online tools and places that are available for users to generate content and communicate through the Internet. These media include blogs, social networks, file-hosting sites and bookmarking sites, among others.
Social Media Monitoring: The act of pro-actively monitoring and tracking applicable social media activity.
Social Media Optimization (SMO): The act of driving traffic through social media channels to reach a certain goal.
Social Media Policy (SMP): A written document that outlines how employees should talk about work on social media as well as advising them on how to best use social media sites. This is written for the protection of the company and clarifies what employees can and cannot say.
Social Network (aka Social Channel): A site or community on the Internet where members can interact with one another and share content. This term is more or less used interchangeably with “social media” in reference to Internet marketing.
Spam: In email marketing, this refers to any message that is deemed by users or email providers to be an unsolicited commercial offer. Also called “junk mail.” “Spam” may also refer to links or comments that are left on blogs, forums and message boards designed exclusively to steer users to a site for commercial gain. This kind of spam, generated by random visitors, is called “link spam” or “comment spam.” In SEO, “spam” can be any Web page that a search engine views as harming the credibility of its results. Examples of these can include doorway pages, link farms, keyword stuffing, cloaking and other duplicitous or otherwise user-hostile practices. The standards for what constitutes SEO spam varies by search engine and current algorithm factors.
Spider: Same as webcrawler.
Style Sheet: A design template used for defining the layout of multiple pages within a website, most commonly seen in the form of “CSS” (cascading style sheets).
Submission: The process of registering a site with a search engine or Web directory. It does not guarantee inclusion, but can lead to it being reviewed or crawled. It offers no guarantee of ranking. The process can be done manually or by using commercial software packages.
Subscribing: The process of opting in to an email newsletter or adding an RSS feed to an aggregator (e.g. for reading blog updates). The action of choosing to get updates and information from a certain site. It is much like signing up for the monthly postage of a magazine.
Tag: A keyword (often in a string) which is attached to a blog post, tweet (see “hashtag”), social bookmark or media file. Tags help categorize content by subject.
Thread: A stream of conversations. For example, a list of comments on a blog post.
Title Tag: A form of meta-data used by search engines to categorize Web pages by title. Search-engine algorithms traditionally value title tags to determine/categorize page content.
Trending: An event or topic that is popular and is widely discussed online.
Troll: Someone who has the intention to get an emotional response from others online. They generally post controversial, provocative & irrelevant messages for their own amusement. Their views do not necessarily reflect the ones they post about.
Tumblr: A microblogging platform and social network that allows users to post images, text, video’s, links and quotes.
Tweet: A tweet is the special name for an entry made on the microblogging site, Twitter. Up to 140 characters long, tweets can consist of random status updates, news, commentary, or anything an individual wants to communicate to followers at that moment, including personal messages to other users or groups and links to external content (articles, photos, videos).
Twitter: A social media website where users can post short messages, known as tweets (up to 140 characters) for anyone who is following them to see. Twitter is a microblogging platform which allows users to create profiles, share short updates on a timeline, and engage with other users.
Twittersphere: The world in which Twitter exists. This is made up of everything that happens on Twitter.
Unique Visitor: Also known as “absolute unique visitor,” this statistic represents visitors to a website that are counted once in a given time period despite the possibility of having made multiple visits. Determined by cookies, unique visitors are distinguished from regular visitor counts which would classify two or more visits from the same user as multiple visitors.
URL (Universal or uniform resource locator): This string of letters and numbers separated by periods and slashes is unique for every Internet page. A page’s address must be written in this form in order to be found on the World Wide Web.
User-Generated Content: Commonly abbreviated as “UGC,” it is any piece of content created by a member of a given website’s audience for use on that website and sometimes to be freely distributed on the Web. Wikis (and Wikipedia) are examples of UGC (see below).
User Sitemap: A page containing structured links to every other important page on a particular website grouped by topic or navigational hierarchy. These pages are equally useful for people and search-engine spiders alike, as they provide a categorized look at every page on a website at a glance (with hyperlinks).
Viral: Certain bits of information are said to ‘go viral’. This means they spread from person to person very quickly, much like a virus. Memes can often spread like this.
Visibility: A brand, company, person, group, social profile or website 's presence in the marketplace.
Vlog: Much like a blog, but documented using video instead of written content.
VOIP: An acronym for “Voice Over Internet Protocol.” This technology allows a user to make phone calls (with potential video) via a computer with an Internet connection or a wireless-enabled mobile device. The most famous example of a VOIP provider is Skype.
Web 2.0: This complex term covers many dimensions of the contemporary Web, including quick user access to streaming video, audio, images and other popular content. It can be generally used to describe interactive, community-driven content, namely blogs, file-hosting, UGC, and social-networking sites.Web 2.0 is also a philosophy that the Internet should be used more as a public-access platform and less as a vehicle for traditional, one-way publishing. Related concepts include collaboration, crowdsourcing and the use of open-source software.
Webcrawler (aka bot, crawler, robot or spider): Search engines work by indexing all available webpages and scoring them based on a number of factors to gauge their trustworthiness or popularity. WebCrawlers are automatic routines that travel the web using links and carry out evaluations of each individual website. Google’s PageRank WebCrawler is possibly the most famous.
Webinar: A Web-based seminar containing audio and video, often in the form of a slide deck.
Web conference: A “virtual” meeting of attendees where audio and visual content (including computer screens or live video feeds) can be shared freely over the Internet, so that attendees can have a close approximation to an in-person meeting despite being in different physical locations. Web conferencing takes advantage of a number of different social tools, including VOIP and instant messaging. GoToMeeting is one popular example of Webconference software. (Full disclosure: Fathom uses GoToMeeting.)
Web Traffic: Web traffic is the amount of data sent and received by visitors to a web site. This necessarily does not include the traffic generated by bots.
Wiki: Refers to any page or collection of pages on the Internet or an intranet that can be easily edited by the public or a select group of registered visitors. Wikis are examples of collaboration. See “Wikipedia,” the most famous example of a wiki, below.
Wikipedia: A free, open-source, multilingual encyclopedia consisting of heavily edited user-generated content on topics of nearly every sort. The largest encyclopedia in the world, Wikipedia is administered by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit group. One defining characteristic of Wikipedia is its insistence on not publishing original research, but rather being an authoritative clearinghouse of citations of other material already published on the Web.
Wordpress: An open source CMS which is used for blog publication.
XML Sitemap: An XML file for search engines containing a list of URLs on a particular domain. This file can be used to supplement regular indexing, where a bot/crawler goes out and visits each page of a site by itself.
YouTube: The most popular video-hosting and video-sharing site, it is also currently the largest search engine after Google (incidentally, also owned by Google). Users can view, upload and comment on video content for no charge, though companies can pay for sponsored promotion of videos or to have enhanced branding and design capabilities on their profile pages, known as channels.
YouTubers (or sometimes referred to as YouTube personalities or YouTube celebrities): They are a class of internet celebrity who are popular because of their videos on the video-sharing website YouTube. Some YouTube personalities have corporate sponsors, who pay for product placement in their clips or production of online ads. Networks sometimes support YouTube celebrities.