Glossary of Project Management Terms - Part II


Part I of this post: Glossary of Project Management Terms - Part I

P

  • PMBOX: Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) is a collection of processes and knowledge areas accepted as best practice within the project management discipline.

  • Parallel Activities: Parallel activities are two or more activities than can be done at the same time. This allows a project to be completed faster than if the activities were arranged serially in a straight line.

  • Parametric Estimating: Estimating using an algorithm in which parameters that represent different attributes of the project are used to calculate project effort, cost, and/or duration. Parametric estimating is usually used in top-down Estimating.

  • Performance Indicators: Something observed or calculated that acts as an approximation of, or proxy for, changes in the phenomenon of interest.

  • Performance Measures: Performance measures describe how success in achieving the agency goals will be measured and tracked.Performance measure targets provide the quantifiable answer to the question, "How will we know when we've been successful in achieving our goal?" Analyzing the gaps between current performance levels and performance targets helps organizations identify priority areas needing improvement and develop strategies that will close the gap.

  • Performance Outcomes: Results or consequences of the efforts enacted during the project's planning and execution.

  • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT): A scheduling technique that makes use of dependency analysis and critical path to determine the duration of a project and slack to determine priorities of tasks. In PERT, task durations are computed as (Optimistic + 4xMost likely + Pessimistic estimates) / 6).

  • PERT Diagram: A type of network diagram deriving its name from the PERT technique. The term is often used as a synonym for network diagram.

  • Phase: A grouping of activities in a project that are required to meet a major milestone by providing a significant deliverable, such as a requirements definition or product design document. A project is broken down into a set of phases for control purposes. The phase is usually the highest level of breakdown of a project in the WBS.

  • Portfolio Management: Portfolio management is the centralized management of one or more portfolios, which includes identifying, prioritizing, authorizing, managing, and controlling projects, programs and other related work to achieve specific strategic business objectives. Hierarchy: Portfolio -> Programs -> Projects.

  • Post Implementation Review (PIR) aka Close Out Report: This is a report compiled upon completion of every project, which determines if the expectations established for the project outcome were met. It documents the comparison between actual results of a project and the objectives and deliverables specified in the project's Charter.

  • Planning: The process of establishing and maintaining the definition of the scope of a project, the way the project will be performed (procedures and tasks), roles and responsibilities and the time and cost estimates.

  • Policies and Procedures: A set of policies are principles, rules, and guidelines formulated or adopted by an organization to reach its long-term goals and typically published in a booklet or other form that is widely accessible.

  • Post-Project Evaluation (aka Post-mortem, Project Retrospective): An activity to assess and evaluate the way a project was performed, so as to learn from the experience and continuously improve project performance.

  • Power: Power is the ability to influence the actions of others. Power may come from the formal delegation of authority, reference power, and subject matter expertise, the ability to influence rewards and penalties, as well as other sources.

  • Predecessor Task: A task (or activity) that must be started or finished before another task or milestone can be performed. See also Successor.

  • Probability: The likelihood of a risk occurring. Usually expressed as a probability percentage or a relative scale such as low, medium or high.

  • Procedure: A fixed, step-by-step sequence of activities or course of action (with definite start and end points) that must be followed in the same order to correctly perform a task. Repetitive procedures are called routines. See also method.

  • Process: A series of steps or actions to accomplish something. A natural series of changes or occurrences.

  • Procurement: Procurement is the process by which the resources (goods and services) required by a project are acquired. It includes development of the procurement strategy, preparation of contracts, selection and acquisition of suppliers, and management of the contracts.

  • Program: A program is the umbrella structure established to manage a series of related projects. The program does not produce any project deliverables — the project teams produce them all. The purpose of the program is to provide overall direction and guidance, to make sure the related projects are communicating effectively, to provide a central point of contact and focus for the client and the project teams, and to determine how individual projects should be defined to ensure that all the work gets completed successfully.

  • Program Management: The process of managing several related projects, often with the intention of improving an organization's performance. In practice and in its aims it is often closely related to systems engineering, industrial engineering, change management and business transformation.

  • Program Manager: A program manager is the person with the authority to manage a program. (Note that this is a role. The program manager may also be responsible for one or more of the projects within the program.) The program manager leads the overall planning and management of the program. All project managers within the program report to the program manager.

  • Project: A project is a temporary structure to organize and manage work and ultimately to build a specific defined deliverable or set of deliverables. By definition, all projects are unique, which is one reason it is difficult to compare different projects to one another.

  • Project Baseline: See Baseline.

  • Project Charter: See Charter.

  • Project Governance: It is to provide a decision-making framework that is logical, robust and repeatable to govern an organization’s capital investments.

  • Project Lifecycle: The full set of activities from the beginning to the end of a project. Generally associated with a set of phases, which are determined based on the major parts of project performance (e.g., requirements definition, design, construction, deployment) and the need for control by the Client organization (checkpoints for Go/No go decision-making).

  • Project Management: Project management is the discipline of planning, organising and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives. The Project Management Institute (PMI) defines project management as, The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations.

  • Project Management Office (PMO): The Project Management Office is an organization within a company that develops and enforces project management processes, tools, and techniques. A PMO may form at a program level, a department level, or at an enterprise level. A PMO typically provides support for program or portfolio governance, project portfolio management, resource management, and issue and risk management.

  • Project Management Life Cycle: The sequential major time periods through which any project passes, namely: Initiation, Planning, Implementation, Monitoring, Closure, Each period may be identified as a phase and further broken down into stages.

  • Project Management Plan: The project management plan brings together all the plans for a project. The purpose of the project management plan (PMP) is to document the outcomes of the planning process and to provide the reference document for managing the project. The project management plan is owned by the project manager.

  • Project Management Professional (PMP): Project Management Professional is a globally recognised certification in project management. It is managed by the Project Management Institute and is based on the PMP Examination Specification published by PMI in 2005. Most exam questions reference to PMI's ANSI standard 'A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge', shortened to PMBOK Guide.

  • Project Manager: The project manager is the person with the authority to manage a project. The project manager is 100% responsible for the processes used to manage the project. He or she also has people management responsibilities for team members, although this is shared with the team member's functional manager. The processes used to manage the project include defining the work, building the workplan and budget, managing the workplan and budget, scope management, issues management, risk management, etc.

  • Project Objectives: Descriptions of the project's intended results..

  • Project Outcome: See Outcome.

  • Project Phase: A phase is a major logical grouping of work on a project. It also represents the completion of a major deliverable or set of related deliverables. On an IT development project, logical phases might be planning, analysis, design, construct (including testing), and implementation.

  • Project Plan: The project plan (not to be confused with the project schedule) is the document that describes the processes, tools, and techniques used to manage and control the project. Common processes include specific project level processes such as change management, issue management, risk management, document management, and time management for project schedule updates.

  • Project Portfolio Management (PPM): Project portfolio management organised a series of projects into a single portfolio of reports that capture project objectives and other critical factors.

  • Project Proposal: Project proposals are documents designed to present a plan of action, outline the reasons why the action is necessary, and convince the reader to agree with and approve the implementation of the actions recommended in the body of the document.

  • Project Reviews: Project reviews take place throughout the project life cycle to check the likely or actual achievement of the objectives specified in the project management plan (PMP) and the benefits detailed in the business case. Additional reviews will take place following handover and closeout to ensure that the benefits are being realized by the organization.

  • Project Schedule (aka Work Schedule): The project schedule is the series of tasks with durations, resources, and specific dependencies that forecasts the project end date.

  • Project Scope Statement: A concise and accurate description of the expected work, products and deliverables. Also includes works and products that are not included in the project.

  • Project Sponsorship: Project sponsorship is an active senior management role, responsible for identifying the business need, problem or opportunity. The sponsor ensures the project remains a viable proposition and that benefits are realized, resolving any issues outside the control of the project manager.

  • Project Statement: A concise statement that clearly identifies the project's purpose, or desired outcome. It generally includes three components: cost, time and performance.

  • Project Status Reports: A written report produced by the project manager and sent to a senior manager or project supervisor on a regular basis, stating the position of an activity, work package, or the whole project. Status reports control the project and keep management informed of project status.

  • Project Success: Project success is the satisfaction of stakeholder needs and is measured by the success criteria as identified and agreed at the start of the project.

  • Project Team: The project team consists of the full-time and part-time resources assigned to work on the deliverables of the project. They are responsible for understanding the work to be completed; completing assigned work within the budget, timeline, and quality expectations; informing the project manager of issues, scope changes, and risk and quality concerns; and proactively communicating status and managing expectations.

  • Project Team Members: Members of the core project team and those that are assigned to the development and/or support the project deliverables.

  • Project Termination (or close-out): Project termination is the last stage of managing the project, and occurs after the implementation phase has ended. Acceptance testing has been carried out, and the project deliverables have been handed over to the client.

Q

  • Quality Assurance (QA): Making sure standards and procedures are effective and that they are complied with. Note, in some organizations QA is used to refer to the quality control function.

  • Quality Control (QC): Making sure deliverables comply with acceptance criteria. Includes testing and reviews.

R

  • RACI Chart: A matrix of all the activities or decision making authorities undertaken in an organisation set against all the people or roles. At each intersection of activity and role it is possible to assign somebody responsible, accountable, consulted or informed for that activity or decision.

  • Relative Date: A date expressed as a number of periods (e.g., days, weeks, or months) from a reference point. For example, two months after the project start date. See also Calendar Date.

  • Release: A release is a set of working software delivered to the business customer resulting from a set of iterations. During release planning, teams will review a product backlog to organize user stories into the specific releases and iterations that deliver a functional product to the business customer. See also Deploy.

  • Request for Applications (RFA): Request for Applications. This is a document sent out to the development community to inform them that funding will be made available in the form of grants to development organizations interested in conducting development work in a specific area.

  • Request for Information (RFI): A request for information is a standard business process whose purpose is to collect written information about the capabilities of various suppliers.

  • Request for Proposal (RFP): The request for proposal is a formal request used by organizations to identify potential solutions and services from a list of vendors. Based on the RFP, the organization will identify a smaller list of vendors to issue a request for quotation.

  • Request for Quotation (RFQ): A request for quotation is a formal request for a vendor to provide actual costs for a specific service or scope of work. The client typically provides a vendor with a set of requirements and instructions on how to respond to the request. The vendor provides its response, including details about the solution, assumptions, and pricing.

  • Required Approvals: Required sign offs, usually by higher authority.

  • Requirements: Requirements are descriptions of how a product or service should act, appear, or perform. Requirements generally refer to the features and functions of the deliverables you are building on your project. Requirements are considered to be a part of project scope. High-level scope is defined in your project definition (charter). The requirements form the detailed scope. After your requirements are approved, they can be changed through the scope change management process.

  • Resources: Everything needed to complete a project, but in particular people and money.

  • Resource Allocation: Resource allocation is the process of assigning and managing assets in a manner that supports project goals.

  • Resource Capacity Planning: Resource capacity planning is a tool used to determine the resources needed by an organization in order to meet future workflow demands that stem from the need to increase capacity or a move to a new system, workflow or business process.

  • Resource Dependency: A dependency between tasks in which the tasks share the same resources and therefore cannot be worked on simultaneously. Resource dependent tasks can be scheduled at the same time but are limited by the availability of the shared resources.

  • Resource Leveling: Resource leveling is the part of the scheduling process in which the start and end dates of tasks are driven by resource limitations (e.g., limited availability of resources or difficult-to-manage resource levels). Among the scheduling objectives, is to ensure that resources are not overburdened (don’t schedule more resources for a period than are available) and that (as much as possible) there are not significant peaks and valleys in the resource schedule.

  • Resource Management: Resource management is the efficient and effective development of an organization's resources when they are needed. Such resources may include financial resources, inventory, human skills, production resources, or information technology. The goal typically is to ensure that: 1) there are employees within our organization with required specific skill set and desired profile required for a project, 2) decide the number and skill sets of new employees to hire, and 3) allocate the workforce to various projects.

  • Resource Scheduling: Resource scheduling is a collection of techniques used to calculate the resources required to deliver the project.

  • Resource Utilization: Percentage of hours actually worked, when compared with possible working hours. Formula: Utilization = ActualWork / TotalHours

  • Responsibility: The obligation to perform or take care of something, usually with the liability to be accountable for loss or failure. Responsibility may be delegated to others but the delegation does not eliminate the responsibility. See also Accountability.

  • Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM): A tool used to relate each project activity in the WBS with a responsible organization unit or individual. Its purpose is to ensure that every activity is assigned to one or more individuals (only one with primary responsibility) and that the individuals are aware of their responsibilities.

  • Results: Results are changes in a state or condition which derive from a cause-and- effect relationship. There are three types of such changes (intended or unintended, positive and/or negative) which can be set in motion by a development intervention – its output, outcome and impact.

  • Return of Investment: (ROI): ROI calculation compares the cost of a project with the benefits you expect to achieve. Different projects can then be evaluated on a like-for-like basis and the best use for the money selected.

  • Risk: There may be potential external events that will have a negative impact on your project if they occur. Risk refers to the combination of the probability the event will occur and the impact on the project if the event occurs. If the combination of the probability of the occurrence and the impact to the project is too high, you should identify the potential event as a risk and put a proactive plan in place to manage the risk.

  • Risk Analysis: An examination of risk areas or events to assess the probable consequences for each event, or combination of events in the analysis, and determine possible options for avoidance.

  • Risk Assessment: Part of risk management in which planners identify potential risks and describe them, usually in terms of their symptoms, causes, probability of occurrence and potential impact.

  • Risk Exposure: The likely loss or consequence of a risk. It is the combined probability and impact of a risk usually expressed as the product or probability x impact. Risk Impact The harm or consequences for a project of a risk if it occurs. Usually expressed on a relative scale such as low, medium or high.

  • Risk Management: A process to assess potential problems (risks), determine which risks are important to deal with, and implement strategies to reduce the likelihood or consequences (impact) of those problems.

  • Risk Mitigation: Actions taken to eliminate or reduce risk by reducing the probability and or impact of occurrence.

  • Risk Probability: The likelihood of a risk occurring. Usually expressed as a probability percentage or a relative scale such as low, medium or high.

  • Risk Response: An action that can be taken to address the occurrence of a risk event. Contingency plans are collections of risk responses.

  • Risk Trigger: Events or thresholds for indicators that specify when an action such as implementing a contingency plan needs to be taken.

S

  • Schedule: The project timeline, identifying the dates (absolute or relative to a start date) that project tasks will be started and completed, resources will be required and upon which milestones will be reached.

  • Scheduling: Scheduling is the process used to determine the overall project duration and when activities and events are planned to happen. This includes identification of activities and their logical dependencies, and estimation of activity durations, taking into account requirements and availability of resources.

  • Schedule Variance: The schedule variance (SV) is an EV management term used to measure the project's schedule performance by comparing the project's EV to the project baselined planned value (PV). The formula is SV = EV - PV. A positive SV indicates the project is ahead of schedule, while a negative SV indicates the project is behind schedule.

  • Scope: Scope is the way you describe the boundaries of the project; it defines what the project will deliver and what it will not deliver. High-level scope is set in your project definition (charter) and includes all of your deliverables and the boundaries of your project. The detailed scope is identified through your business requirements. Any changes to your project deliverables, boundaries, or requirements would require approval through scope change management.

  • Scope Change: Any change in the definition of the project scope. Scope change can result from changes in client needs, discovery of defects or omissions, regulatory changes, etc.

  • Scope Change Control (aka Scope change management): The process of making sure that all changes to the project scope are consciously evaluated and their implications to the project plan are considered in making a decision to make the change, postpone it or reject it.

  • Scope Change Management: The purpose of scope change management is to manage change that occurs to previously approved scope statements and requirements. Scope is defined and approved in the scope section of the project definition (charter) and the more detailed business requirements. If the scope or the business requirements change during the project (and usually this means the client wants additional items), the estimates for cost, effort, and duration may no longer be valid. If the sponsor agrees to include the new work in the project scope, the project manager has the right to expect that the current budget and deadline will be modified (usually increased) to reflect this additional work. This new estimated cost, effort, and duration become the approved target.Sometimes the project manager thinks that scope management means having to tell the client "no." That makes the project manager nervous and uncomfortable. However, the good news is that managing scope is all about getting the sponsor to make the decisions that will result in changes to project scope.

  • Scope Creep: The uncontrolled growth of the project scope resulting from constant changes to requirements without consideration to the impact on resources or timescale. See also Gold Plating.

  • Scope Definition: Breaking down the project's major deliverables into smaller, more manageable components to make verification, development and project control easier. This may be part of requirements definition and/or design.

  • Scope Management: Scope management is the process by which the deliverables and work to produce them are identified and defined. Identification and definition of the scope must describe what the project will include and what it will not include, i.e. what is in and out of scope.

  • Scope Planning: Development of a statement of the principle deliverables of a project along with the project's justification (business case) and objectives. Part of requirements definition.

  • Scope Verification: PMI's PMBOK Guide defines this as the process to ensure that all project deliverables have been completed satisfactorily. It is associated with acceptance of the product by clients and sponsors.

  • Scrum (in Agile): Scrum is an iterative development methodology used to manage software projects. In scrum-based projects, there isn't a specific project manager directing project team tasks; the team is self-directed, with co-located team members relying on communication over documentation for effective project delivery.

  • Sequence: Sequence is the order in which activities will occur with respect to one another. This establishes the priority and dependencies between activities. Successor and predecessor relationships are developed in a network format. This allows those involved in the project to visualize the work flow.

  • Sequencing Tasks: A part of the scheduling process in which the tasks are positioned in series or in parallel to one another based on dependencies between them. Sequencing results in a task network.

  • Sign-off (or Project Sign-off): A formal ultimate acceptance of the project results by the client who agrees that everything he had been expecting for (according to contract and other specification documents) is delivered and hence the job of project executers is completely over now.

  • Six Sigma: Six Sigma is a management philosophy developed by Motorola that emphasizes setting extremely high objectives, collecting data and analyzing results to a fine degree as a way to reduce defects in products and services.

  • Slippage: Slippage is the amount of slack or float time used up by the current activity due to a delayed start. If an activity without float is delayed, the entire project will slip.

  • SMART: The five elements for a well-worded objective, namely Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time Bound.

  • SDLC (Systems Development Life Cycle): The systems development life cycle is a conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involves in an information system development project, from an initial feasibility study through maintenance of the completed application.

  • Specifications: Detailed statements of project deliverables that result from requirements definition and design. Specifications generally describe the deliverables in terms of appearance, operational constraints and quality attributes. Specifications are the basis for acceptance criteria used in scope verification and quality control. In some organizations and industries, specifications may be qualified as requirements specifications and design specifications. See Requirements.

  • Sponsor (aka Executive Sponsor or Project Sponsor): The sponsor is the person who has ultimate authority over the project. The executive sponsor provides project funding, resolves issues and scope changes, approves major deliverables, and provides high-level direction. He or she also champions the project within the organization. Depending on the project and the organizational level of the executive sponsor, he or she may delegate day-to-day tactical management to a project sponsor. If assigned, the project sponsor represents the executive sponsor on a day-to-day basis and makes most of the decisions requiring sponsor approval. If the decision is large enough, the project sponsor will take it to the executive sponsor.

  • Sprint (in Agile): A sprint is a scrum-based agile methodology concept that is similar to an iteration. A sprint is time boxed to deliver a specific set of user stories and produce working features within a set time period. During sprint planning, the business customer or product owner specifies the user story priority, and the development team commits to the scope for a given sprint. During a sprint, user stories can be removed from the sprint scope, but new stories cannot be added; this allows project teams to focus on the goals of the sprint and deliver rapidly.

  • Stakeholder: Specific people or groups who have a stake in the outcome of the project are stakeholders. Normally stakeholders are from within the company and may include internal clients, management, employees, administrators, etc. A project can also have external stakeholders, including suppliers, investors, community groups, and government organizations.

  • Statement of Work (SOW): The bible for the work the project must produce. The SOW is a key governance tool whether it is being used to direct work for a vendor or contractor, or used to direct the work internally, the SOW must contain a description of all the work that is expected.

  • Steering Committee: A steering committee is usually a group of high-level stakeholders who are responsible for providing guidance on overall strategic direction. They don't take the place of a sponsor but help spread the strategic input and buy-in to a larger portion of the organization. The steering committee is especially valuable if your project has an impact in multiple organizations because it allows input from those organizations into decisions that affect them.

  • Story Points: (in Agile) A story point is a relative estimation method used to determine the size of user stories so teams can determine how much work can be done during an iteration. Story points can be expressed in a simple Fibonacci sequence, t-shirt sizes, or a relative number. By adding up the number of user stories and associated story points, the project team can establish its velocity for future iteration planning.

  • Strategic Plan: A plan that is tightly tied to the organization's mission, vision, values and objectives, and depends heavily on highlevel coordination and influences management to achieve their goals.

  • Subject Matter Expert (SME) or Domain Expert: is a person who is an authority in a particular area or topic. The term domain expert is frequently used in expert systems software development, and there the term always refers to the domain other than the software domain.

  • Subproject: A subproject is a distinct group of activities that comprise their own project which in turn is a part of a larger project. Subprojects are summarized into a single activity to hide the detail.

  • Sub-task: A breakdown of a task into the work elements that make it up. A task must be broken down into at least two sub-tasks for a meaningful decomposition.

  • Successor: A task or milestone that is logically linked to one or more predecessor tasks.

  • SWOT Analysis: A strategic planning tool used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to a project. It involves specifying the objective of the project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieving that objective.

T

  • Task: A piece of work requiring effort, resources and having a concrete outcome (a deliverable). A task may be of any size (a project is a very large task). Sometimes the term is used to denote a piece of work at a particular level in a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) hierarchy e.g., a phase is broken into a set of activities, and an activity into a set of tasks. Except for this hierarchical usage, activity is synonymous with task.

  • Task Dependency: A relationship in which a task or milestone relies on other tasks to be performed (completely or partially) before it can be performed. Also referred to as a logical relationship.

  • Team Structure: Team structure refers to the composition of an individual team or of a multi-team system. Team structure is an integral part of the teamwork process.

  • Teamwork: Teamwork is when people work collaboratively towards a common goal as distinct from other ways that individuals can work within a group.

  • Theme (in Agile): A collection of user stories. See also Epic, Features, User Story.

  • Theory of Constraints (TOC): A management philosophy that views any manageable system as being limited in achieving more of its goals by a very small number of constraints.

  • Top-down Estimating: Approximating the size (duration and cost) and risk of a project (or phase) by looking at the project as a whole and comparing it to previously performed similar projects. The comparison may be made directly using "analogous estimating," through an algorithm as in "parametric estimating", or from the memory of estimating experts.

  • Total Cost of Ownership (TCO): is an estimate of all direct and indirect costs associated with an asset or acquisition over its entire life.

  • Triple Constraints: All projects are carried out under certain constraints – traditionally, they are cost, time and scope. These three factors (commonly called 'the triple constraint') are represented as a triangle (see below).

U

  • Use Case: The specification of software tests that are conducted from the end user perspective. Use cases focus on operating the software as an end user would during their day-to-day activities.

  • User Story (in Agile): A user story is an agile version of a project requirement. A user story is comprised of a couple of sentences that defines who, what, and why for a given requirement and can be documented on index cards or sticky notes. User stories are written by the business user to communicate the software need or want. User stories are intended to be concise, as communication between the business and development team is used to elaborate the user story and develop working software. Example from Mike Cohn: "As a <role>, I want <goal/desire>".

  • Utilization: The proportion of the available time (expressed usually as a percentage) that a piece of equipment or a system is operating. Formula: Operating hours x 100 ÷ available hours. See also Resource Utilization.

V

  • Variance: The difference between estimated cost, duration or effort and the actual result of performance. In addition, can be the difference between the initial or baseline product scope and the actual product delivered.

  • Vendor: An organization or individuals providing products or services under contract to the client or to the project performance group. Also called outside contractors or subcontractors.

  • Vision Statement: A statement that captures the long-term picture of what the organization wants to become. A vision statement must be inspirational, memorable and reflect the desires of those with vested interests. An example would be, "To be recognized for leadership, innovation and excellence in improving the health of individuals and populations."

W

  • Waterfall (or Waterfall Methodology): A waterfall methodology is a predictive life cycle methodology with sequential phases, which include Analysis, Design, Development, Testing, and Deployment. Predictive methodologies work well when the requirements and design are well defined, as found in the construction or manufacturing processes. For software projects, an agile methodology is recommended despite the abundance of waterfall methodologies found across industries.

  • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS): A list of major deliverables that the project team will complete during the project. The WBS is organized in a hierarchy and is typically decomposed into several sub-levels. A WBS can be used to visually define the project into smaller chunks, so the team can better understand and plan the activities needed to complete the deliverables.

  • Work Flow: Work flow is the relationship of the activities in a project from start to finish. Work flow takes into consideration all types of activity relationships.

  • Work Load: Work load is the amount of work units assigned to a resource over a period of time.

  • Work Package: A task at a low level of the Work Breakdown Structure at which project accounting is performed. Usually a week or so in duration and performed by an individual or small work group. Work Units Work units is the

  • Workplan (schedule): The project workplan tells you how you will complete the project. It describes the activities required, the sequence of the work, who is assigned to the work, an estimate of how much effort is required, when the work is due, and other information of interest to the project manager. The workplan allows the project manager to identify the work required to complete the project and also allows the project manager to monitor the work to determine whether the project is on schedule.

Type of Meetings

  • Kickoff: Present the project goals, introduce the participants, and decide on certain logistical questions; the first time a team gets together, the project sponsor usually speaks to them and generates enthusiasm.

  • Planning: Develop the project plan; assign roles and responsibilities; make decisions about how the project will be carried out.

  • Walk-through: Read through the project plan and/or significant documentation to uncover problems and clarify information.

  • Problem Solving: Solve problems that require several members of the team and/or management; generate alternative solutions.

  • Debrief: Provide critical information to higher levels of management. Focus on goals, results, budget, schedule; seek approval for next steps where appropriate.

  • Presentations: Make a formal presentation to managers, stakeholders, and others about the results at the end of the project. For example, project status updates, information sharing, or decision making meetings.

  • Milestone: Conduct formal reviews of progress against plan at critical points defined in the project plan when important interim steps are completed; present interim results.

Additional information

“Project management is like juggling three balls – time, cost and quality. Program management is like a troupe of circus performers standing in a circle, each juggling three balls and swapping balls from time to time.” ~ G. Reiss

#ProjectManagement #Glossary #ProjectManagementTerms #Waterfall #Agile

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